ARDHANAREESWARA

Ardhanareeswarar
           Ardhanareeswara

 

To Her whose dance marks the Creation of the world,

To Him whose dance indicates the total destruction of everything in this world,

To Her who is the World Mother,

To Him who is the Father of the Universe,

To Gowri and Siva may our prostrations be.

 

Prapancha srushti yun mukha lasya kayai,

Samastha samharaka Thandavaya,

Jagath Jananyai Jagadeka pithre,

Namah Shivayai cha namah shivaya.

                        a verse from the Ardhanareeswara stotram of AdiShankara and its meaning by Swami Sivananda                  

In the temples for Lord Shiva the Lingam is worshipped as representing Shiva. There are some temples that differ from this general rule. One is the famous temple of Nataraja in Chidambaram, where the main deity is Nataraja, the cosmic dancer. Another is the hill temple of Ardhanareeswara in Tiruchengode in Tamil Nadu where Shiva is worshipped in the rare form of Ardhanareeswara, half Shiva and half Parvati.

Ardha – half

Naari – woman, Parvati

Ishwara – Shiva

As far as I know, this is the only temple solely dedicated to Lord Ardhanareeswara. Over the years I have been fortunate to visit this temple many times and it is one of my favourite and best loved temples.

Ardhanareeswarar temple, Thiruchengode
Ardhanareeswarar temple, Thiruchengode
Selva Vinayagar
Selva Vinayagar

THIRUCHENGODE

Location

It is 47 km from Salem, 22 km from Erode, 37 km from Namakkal, and 129 km from Coimbatore.

Thiruchengode is the name of the hill and the town of the same name. It is in present day Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu.

In the days of yore, the name of the town was Kodi Mada Chenkunroor.

Chengodu means red coloured hill. True to its name the rock of the hill is red or pink interspersed with patches of black and you can see this when you drive up the hill road.

The hill temple is built at a height of 650 feet above mean sea level. It can be reached by a motorable road.

Another way to reach the temple is by climbing 1206 stone steps. If you choose to climb the steps there are many mandapams on the way where pilgrims can rest. In the past these steps were the only way to reach the temple.

A view of the hill road
A view of the hill road

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 LEGEND OF THE HILL

The story goes that a battle of strength took place between Aadhi Seshan and Vayu. Aadhi Seshan wound his coils tightly around Mt. Meru and Vayu deva did his best to blow him away and succeeded. It is said that three peaks of Meru were blown away along with a bleeding Aadhi Seshan and the place where one of these peaks fell was Tiruchengodu. The blood spilled by Aadhi Seshan colored the hill red and hence the name Chengodu. There is a beautiful shrine to Aadhi Seshan in the prakaram of the temple.

Alluding to this story, Tiruchengode hill is also called as Nagachala and Nagamalai. There are large images of beautifully coiled hooded snakes in various parts of the hill.

ANTIQUITY

  • This ancient hill temple is more than 2000 years old.
  • The Tamil epic Silapathikaram was written by Ilangovadigal in the Sangam period, (early 1st millennium CE), and this temple is mentioned in it. It is believed that Kannagi, the lady protagonist of this wonderful epic ascended to heaven in the pushpaka vimana from the top of this hill.
  • It is one of the 275 Devara paadal petra sthalams and the 4th among the 7 Kongu naatu sthalams.
  • The Devaram hymn of Sambandar named Thiruneelakanda Pathigam was sung by him in Tiruchengode.
  •  The story behind the hymn is that Sambandar came to Tiruchengode to worship Ardhanareeswara and stayed here for some time. A mysterious fever raged among the pilgrims who accompanied him and also the townspeople. This hymn was sung by Sambandar beseeching Lord Shiva to cure them and the ailment vanished. To this day this hymn is recited to help in reducing fevers.
  • Saint Arunagirinathar has sung Thirupugazh hymns in praise of Sengottu Velar which is the name of Lord Murugan in this temple.
  • There are stone inscriptions said to date back to the times of     Paranthaka Cholan, Gangai konda Cholan,Vijayanagara and Mysore kings and the Nayaks.
  • A British officer named Davis repaired some parts of the temple. His image is on a pillar near the Mukkootu Vinayagar shrine.

TEMPLE OF ARDHANAREESWARA

There are three major shrines for

  • Ardhanareeswara
  • Sengottu Velar
  • Adhikesava Perumal

Ardhanareeswarar   Maadhoru Baagan   Ammayappan   UmaiOru Baagan   Mangai Pangan

These are the names of Lord Ardhanaareswara in this temple.

The main deity is an imposing 7 ft. tall idol which depicts half Shiva and half Parvati, Shiva on the right half is clothed in white veshti or dhoties and the left half depicting Parvati is dressed in a silk saree. During deeparathanai the priest will show you by the light of the arti the important aspects of this unique idol. You can here the intonation,

Valadhu pakkam dhandayudham, 

Swamyin Jadamagudam

Valadhu paagam Iswaran

Idathu paagam Ambal

Ambalin thiru mangalyam

Swamy- Ambalin paadaravindham

Meaning:

Dandayutham of Shiva on the right half

Jadaa Magudam of Shiva

Ambal on the left (with her left hand on her hip)

The holy thirumangalyam of Ambal on her chest

The holy feet of Shiva and Parvati, the darshan of which purifies one of all sins.

It is a darshan that makes one’s hair stand on end, a darshan that is equal to none!

Beneath the feet of Arthanareeswara is a perennial spring of water. It is called as Deva theertham. Water from this spring is given as prasad to all devotees.

The name of Ambal is Baagam Piriyaal.

The benevolence that flows from this timeless form is palpable. I feel this grace anew every single time I visit.

There is a Maragadha lingam (jade lingam) that is kept in front of Ardhanareeswara at the time of the main daily pujas.

 Concept of Ardhanareeswara

Ardhanareeswara is one of the 64 manifestations of Shiva.

The form of Ardhanareeswara is one of the union of Shiva and Shakti, of the equality of man and woman. It depicts the truth behind all of Creation.

The transcendental Supreme Being is Shiva.The manifested aspect of the Supreme is Shakti.

Shiva is Nirguna brahman. Shakti is the primordial Energy in Nature that makes any activity possible.

On their own, the powers of Sivam and Shakti are limited.

Together, all things are possible.

Even scientifically, we find that there are male and female chromosomes in every human being. Only one extra chromosome decides whether the child is male or female. Similarly there are masculine and feminine aspects in all things in nature even in inert objects. This universal truth was realized by the sages of India many thousands of years ago.

BRINGI RISHI

The story of Bringi rishi is closely associated with this temple. There is an image of Bringi rishi in the sanctum sanctorum.

 Bringi rishi is generally depicted as the sage with three legs.  He was an ardent worshipper of Shiva to the exclusion of all other deities including Parvati. Even during his daily worship, he would circumambulate only Shiva ignoring Parvati. The divine couple took the form of Ardhanareeswara and stood unified to make him understand that both were inseparable. The egoistic sage took the form of a bee and tried to pierce the body of Shiva so that he could go round only Shiva. In the human body the static force of Shiva rules the bones and skin while the dynamic energy of Shakti rules the blood and sinew. Parvati withdrew her energy from Bringi’s body, and he became a mere skeleton, unable to stand. Shiva pacified Parvati and gave Bringi an extra leg to stand. The sage understood that divine grace Shiva and energy Shakti were not contradictory but complementary to each other.

SENGOTU VELAVAR

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 Kodi maram or  flagstaff in front of the Sengottu Velar shrine
Kodi maram or flagstaff in front of the Sengottu Velar shrine

Lord Subramanya is called Sengotu velavar in this hill temple, and his beautiful image holding a vel (spear) is made of ven pashanam. People name their children after him and Sengottuvelan is a common name in Tiruchengode and Erode districts.

ADI KESAVA PERUMAL

The temple of Adi Kesava Perumal
The temple of Adi Kesava Perumal

The shrine of Adi Kesava Perumal is almost a separate Vaishnava temple within the complex complete with separate kodi maram and sthala vruksham, the punnai maram. Battars perform puja to Adi Kesava Perumal and Sri devi, Bhu devi according to Vaishnava tradition.

It is said that Parvati received instructions on observing Kedara Gowri vrattam from Adi Kesava Perumal, as a result of which she was united in Shiva as Ardhanareeswara.

NAGESWARAR

There is a separate shrine for Nageshwarar.

In the small inner prakaram are the images of Dakshinamurthy, Kedara gowri, durga devi and Naari Ganapathy. Lingothbavar is on the wall behind the main shrine. 

 In the outer prakaram there are shrines to Lord Nataraja,  Sahasralingam, Adi seshan, Bairavar, Sapta madhar, nayanmars niruthi ganapathy, panchalingam and manonmani to name a few.

Here are some pictures of this ancient temple

Early morning sunlight falls on a Shiva lingam and illuminates the kumkum and turmeric covered image of Adi Seshan
Early morning sunlight falls on a Shiva lingam and illuminates the kumkum and turmeric covered image of Adi Seshan
The mandapam  of the Ardhanareeswarar temple
The mandapam of the Ardhanareeswarar temple
The view of the west prakaram
The view of the west prakaram
South Gopuram
South Gopuram
Therku  Gopuram, the southern entrance
Therku Gopuram, the southern entrance
View of the Rajagopuram and Moolavar vimanam
View of the Rajagopuram and Moolavar vimanam
Nandi
Nandi
Guests look on at a wedding in the temple
Guests look on at a wedding in the temple

 

Nava Dwaram or nine openings. Lord Ardhanareeswara can be viewed through this nava dwara and it is considered auspicious to do so.
Nava Dwaram or nine openings.
Lord Ardhanareeswara can be viewed through this nava dwara and it is considered auspicious to do so.

 

A Board informs visitors about temple and puja timings
A Board informs visitors about temple and puja timings
Steps leading down to the sanctum from the Rajagopuram
Steps leading down to the sanctum from the Rajagopuram
A wedding party waits for the wedding photographer to take a picture.
A wedding party waits for the photographer to take a picture.

TEMPLE OF WONDERS

This hill temple is a temple of many wonders.

  • Ardhanaareeswara faces west, which is not so common in Shiva temples.
  • The spring at the feet of Ardhanareeswara at 650 msl is truly remarkable.
  • The imposing idol of Ardhanareeswara is not sculpted from granite.
  • It is made of ven pashanam, a complex amalgamation of many substances known only to the rishi- alchemists.
  • There is no history that tells us about who made this idol.  It is thought to be a Uli Padaa Uruvam.

Uli – Tamil for chisel

Padaa –not touched (by)

Uruvam – form

  • There are three shrines and each one has a separate kodimaram or flagstaff.
  • There are two sthala vrukshams or holy trees.
  • One is the gigantic illuppai maram, beneath which is a small shrine to Kasi Viswanathar and Visalakshi.
  • The other is the punnai maram of the temple of Adi Kesava perumal. Women tie tiny cradles to its branches to be granted the boon of children.
The Sthala vruksham - illupai maram part of which was broken down in a gale.
The Sthala vruksham – illupai maram part of which was broken down in a gale.

 MANDAPAMS

The skill of the artists and sculptors of Tamil Nadu is truly amazing as is seen in panchaloga idols, in the motifs of silk and cotton fabric, in the iconography and stucco forms in the towering gopurams across Tamil Nadu.

But to bring these images and motifs to life in stone is something that is near impossible if not extremely difficult!

Such magic exists in the mandapams (halls) in front of the shrines of Ardhanareeswara, Sengotuvelar and Nageshwarar. Every stone pillar, wall and ceiling is richly covered with minute to large sculptures, panels and patterns that mesmerize and cast their spell on you. Delicate stone parrots cling to the ceiling as do lotus buds and flowers. Segments of chains hang down- the wonder lies in the fact that these are made of stone and this is apparent only when you look closely.

The ornate mandapam rich with sculptures. Notice the stone chain links hanging from the ceiling
The ornate mandapam rich with sculptures. Notice the stone chain links hanging from the ceiling
Urdhuva Thandava Murthy
Urdhuva Thandava Murthy
A lady with a baby holding a wicker basket. Can you believe it is made of stone?!
A lady with a baby holding a wicker basket. Can you believe it is made of stone?!
A closer view shows the infant in a type of sling being held in one hand while the wicker basket is slung from the other hand
A closer view shows the infant in a type of sling being held in one hand while the wicker basket is slung from the other hand
An older child stands near the mother with the baby and basket. He is eating  fruit or some other snack. The attention to detail in this sculpture is truly amazing.
An older child stands near the mother with the baby and basket. He is eating fruit or some other snack.
The attention to detail in this sculpture is truly amazing.
Ornate work on the ceiling. Notice the delicate parrot images touching the central flower with their beaks, the intricate carved panels of gods and godesses, and the stone chains hanging from this masterpiece
Ornate work on the ceiling. Notice the delicate parrot images touching the central flower with their beaks, the intricate carved panels of gods and goddesses, and the stone chains hanging from this masterpiece

It is a delight to look at these exquisite creations in granite. Do take the time to look at them when you visit. They are everywhere – on the pillars, panels near the ceiling, the ceiling itself, the myriad alcoves and on the outer walls.

TIMINGS

The temple is open continuously from 6 a.m.to 7.30 p.m.

Please note that the hill road is closed to motorists after 6.30 p.m.

 

The nearest railway station is Erode (23km), Namakkal (37), and Salem (46).

The nearest airport is at Coimbatore (120 km), and Tirichirapalli (120).

By road, it is well connected from Salem, Erode, and Namakkal.

 

 

NAMAKKAL TEMPLES -A LEGACY OF THE ADIYAMAAN DYNASTY – II

LAKSHMI  NARASIMHA SWAMI TEMPLE, NAMAKKAL

INSCRIPTIONS

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Stone Inscriptions found in these temples refer to Namakkal as “Thiru Aaraikal”.They speak of two cave temples called  as Adiya navaya Visnugrha which is the Narasimha temple and Adiyendra Visnugrha, the Ranganathswamy temple.

They are temples of great architectural beauty coupled with genius! It is truly amazing that the Lakshmi Narasiha Swamy temple is built in such a way that Lord Hanuman in the Namakkal Hanuman temple in the next street can be clearly seen from the the  peedam below the Garudalwar sannidhi.!

The Hanuman temple can be seen at the far end
The Hanuman temple can be seen at the far end

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This small peedam in the inner prakaram has a small gopuram. There is a small opening in the gopuram and another one in the back wall of the Garudalwar shrine.

The opening in the small gopuram and another on the wall behind
The opening in the small gopuram and another on the wall behind

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The wonder of this darshan is that the gaze of Hanuman standing some 250 feet away is fixed on the paadham (foot) of Lord Narasimha. These openings are strategically placed so the gaze of Hanuman is not obstructed. Talk about architectural genius!

The inner prakaram looks more like a spacious courtyard with small shrines all around. There are sannidhis for Lord Rama, Sita and Lakshmana, a Udayavar (Ramanujar) sannidhi, Nammalwar sannidhi, one for Sri Krishna, Bama and Rukmini and a Desikar sannidhi.

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Ramanujar
Ramanujar

 

Nammalwar
Nammalwar

 

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Sri Krishna,Rukmini and Sathyabama

 

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desikar

When I was taking photographs here a devotee led me to the big wooden doors that opened into this prakaram and pointed out myriad carvings on wood panels on the doors depicting scenes from The Ramayana and  Dasavathara.

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How often have I passed through these ancient wooden temple doors without noticing the treasures it contained! I realized what it is “to see with unseeing eyes”.

A few pics of these exquisite wood carvings.

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This panel shows Sita giving bhiksha – alms to Ravana who has taken the form of an ascetic.

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The one next to it shows Rama slaying the Maya maan or pon maan –golden deer.

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Hanuman and Sita in the Asokavanam

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This panel on another door shows Rama breaking the Siva Dhanus at Sita’s Swayamvaram. Sage Visvamitra stands behind Rama.

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I think this one shows Ahalya emerging from the stone as the curse leaves her when Rama’s foot touches the stone. Again Sage Viswamitra looks on.

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Outside  in the outer prakaram is a sannidhi for Lord Laskhmi Narayana and  the madapalli or temple kitchen.

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NAMAKKAL TEMPLES -A LEGACY OF THE ADIYAMAAN DYNASTY – I

CAVE TEMPLES OF NAMAKKAL

Namakkal is a beautiful town in Tamil Nadu and headquarters of Namakkal district. An important stop on NH 7 and on all routes leading to South Tamil Nadu, it is also a pilgrimage centre, well known for the famous Namakkal Anjaneyar temple.

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NAAMAGIRI ROCK, NAMAKKAL, TAMIL NADU

This ancient town is built around a massive monolithic rock called as Naamagiri from which the town gets its name. The rock is 65 metres high and more than a kilometre in circumference. Namakkal Fort on top of this rock was built by Ramachandra Nayak in the 16th century. It is believed that Tippu Sultan hid himself in the fort for a brief period of time to escape from the British. Later the British captured the fort.

In this massive rock, two cave temples were built in the 7th century.

The Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy cave temple  at the foot of the Naamagiri rock on the west, and

The Ranganatha Swamy cave temple,  built about midway up the rock on the east.

HISTORY OF THE CAVE TEMPLES

 They were built by King Gunaseelan of the Adhiyamaan dynasty in the 7th century CE. Although the cave temples resemble the architectural style of the Pallava dynasty and the lesser known Pandya rock-cut temples, they belong to the period of the Adiyamaan dynasty which was one of the ancient ruling families of Tamil Nadu. They are known to us from Tamil Sangam literature dating to the early centuries of this era. One of the most famous kings of this dynasty was Adiyamaan Nedumaan Anji, patron of the famed Tamil poetess Avvaiyar.

The Adiyamaans ruled from Thagadur, which is present day Dharmapuri and their domain was northern Kongu, which included the present Salem district.

LAKSHMI NARASIMHA SWAMY TEMPLE

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LAKSHMI NARASIMHA SWAMY TEMPLE, NAMAKKAL, TAMIL NADU

LEGEND

(Sthala Purana)

A charming story is told of how the rock called Naamagiri came into being.

Prahalada the son of King Hiranyakasibu had absolute faith in god. He believed that Parabrahma exists and exists everywhere. His father did not believe in God and challenged him to prove the existence of Parabrahma. Prahalada’s reply was that God exists in all creation, even in an atom. His father asks him if God is in the pillar nearby. Prahalada replies that God is not only in the pillar but also in the words uttered by Hiranyakasipu and also in the sound of those words. Enraged Hiranyakasipu strikes the pillar with his mace to break it, Lord Vishnu takes the form of Narasimha, the angry half man and half lion and comes out of the pillar and kills Hiranyakasipu. He took this avatara in ugra (angered) form to prove that absolute faith should not be failed. The rest of the avatars were taken after due deliberation but the Narasimha avatar took place in a kshana (micro-second) and even before Sri Devi came to know of it. Prahalada prays to the Ugra Narasimha to calm down and the Lord acquiesced.

Goddess Lakshmi did not get to see this avatar as it happened and prayed to the Lord asking to see it. Lord Vishnu told her to go to the place which is present day Namakkal and that in time she would get to witness the avatar there. So the Goddess began a long tapas (penance) on the bank of the Kamalalayam tank as she waited for the sacred darshan.

KAMALALAYAM TANK, NAMAKKAL, TN
KAMALALAYAM TANK, NAMAKKAL, TN

Time rolled on. The events of the Ramayana were taking place. The battle between Lord Rama and the demon king Ravana was being fought. Lakshmana faints on the battlefield and is revived with the herbs from the Sanjivi hill brought from the Himalayas by Hanuman. The hill is returned to its rightful place. Hanuman bathes in the River Kantaki in the Himalayas in which he finds a Salagramam. A Salagramam is a fossil stone found in the River Gantaki in the Himalayas and it represents Sri Hari in pujas.

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On the way back to Lanka, Hanuman stopped at the Kamalalayam tank to bathe before his evening sandya-vandanam. Seeing Goddess Lakshmi meditating on its bank he gave her the Salagrama to keep until he finished his rituals as it was important that the stone was not placed on the ground. The stone grew heavy in Her hand and She placed it on the ground. Meanwhile Hanuman returned after his prayers. As they watched, the Salagrama grew in size until it became an enormous rock. It is believed that on the face of the Salagrama, Lakshmi and Hanuman witnessed the Narasimha Avatar and that Salagrama stands today as the Naamagiri in Namakkal town. To prove the tale the shrine of Naamagiri Thaayar faces Narasimha Swamy as does the idol of Namakkal Hanuman.

Another tale tells of how Narasimha’s fury could not be controlled and it was only after seeing Thaayar that He calmed down.

This is the myth of Naamagiri.

THE TEMPLE

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Entrance to the temple

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At first glance this temple does not look like a cave temple at all. It looks imposing against the backdrop of the Naamagiri rock. The worship protocol here is that you must worship first at the Naamagiri Thaayar shrine, go on to the Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy sannadhi and finally to the Anjaneya temple across the road.

NAAMAGIRI THAAYAAR

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Naamagiri Thaayaar, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu

Goddess Mahalakshmi is worshipped as Naamagiri Thaayaar. She is extremely beautiful. The large evocative eyes and the smile on her face can make you feel that she is listening intently to your requests. It is not uncommon to find people who have come here to leave many a pressing life problem to Naamagiri Thaayaar. She is divine mother, friend and guide to the people of Naamakkal and all those who worship Her.

The Mathematics genius Srinivasa Ramanujan whose family goddess was Naamagiri Thaayar found guidance from the goddess throughout his life. He has said that the goddess whispered mathematic formulae in his ear which he then verified and committed to writing. He was the first Indian Mathematics Fellow at Cambridge University. In an age when it was heresy for Brahmins to cross the oceans to go to foreign lands, Goddess Naamagiri appeared in a dream to Ramanujan’s very orthodox mother telling her to send her son to Cambridge. Ramanujan went to the Naamagiri temple prior to his departure seeking permission to go. It is said that he stayed for three days in the temple precincts and prayed to the goddess, sitting in the four pillared mandapam in front of the Naamagiri thaayar shrine.  The goddess gave her permission in a dream.

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His mentor at Cambridge G.W.Hardy, later wrote of Ramanujan’s theorems and formulae, “A single look at them written down by a mathematician of the highest class. They must be true, because, if they were not true, no one would have had the imagination to invent them.”

http://www.facenfacts.com/NewsDetails/34018/google-doodle-celebrates-indias-known-mathematician-srinivasa-ramanujans-125th-birth-day.htm

Even on his death bed he scribbled down revolutionary mathematical formulae – gifts he said from this Hindu Goddess. He spent his final year furiously writing out pages and pages of theorems as if a storm of number concepts swept through his brain. Many remain beyond today’s best math minds.

http://www.imsc.res.in/~rao/ramanujan/newnow/namagiriindex.htm

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LAKSHMI NARASIMHA SWAMY

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Way to Cave Temple

A flight of steps leads to the prakaram which is on three sides of the temple against the imposing backdrop of the Naamagiri rock.

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A FLORAL MOTIF
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A TORTOISE ENGRAVING

 

You climb a few more steps to the cave temple above.It is spacious with a high ceiling carved out of the rock, almost like a cathedral.

 

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The presiding deity Lord Narasimha is huge. He sits with his left leg placed on the right thigh. The right foot is placed on the floor of the cave. He holds a conch in his left  upper hand. There is a Prayoga Chakra in the right upper hand. The lower left hand is placed on his knee while the right hand shows a mudra.

Behind him on the wall of the cave are carvings of deities. During the deeparaadhanai the priest will explain that this is a Kudavarai koil,and Lord Narasimha is in ugra kolam after Hiranya samhaaram. He is also called as Yoga Narasimhar as He sits in meditation to control His anger. Behind him, the sages sanaka and Sanatana are seen whispering the happenings of the world in the ears of Narasimha Swamy.On either side of the sages Surya and Chandra fan the Lord with a Chamaram to cool his anger.On the far left Brahma and on the far right Shiva look on in awe at this wonderful avatar of Vishnu as Nara-simha.He will show you the red hue of the rock on Narasimha Swamy’s right palm and the sharp finger nails.The red hue shows the bloodstains from slaying of Hiranyakasipu.. The priest will tell you that as Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu are depicted equally within the single shrine, it is known as a Trimurthy sthalam and that there is no separate temple for Shiva at Namakkal.

The artha mandapam walls have large panels of with exquisite stone sculpures. The pane to the left of Narasimha Swamy shows the Varaha avatar with Bhu devi and the panel to the right shows the hiranya Samharam. Another panel shows a rare sculpture of Vaikunta Narayana with Surya, Chandra, Siva, Brahma, Markandeya and Bhu devi.

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HH 46th Srimath Azhagiyasingar, Srivan Sathakopa Sri Ranganatha Yathindra Maha Desikan before the panel showing Sri Vaikunda Narayanan on his visit to the temple on Oct. 5 2015  Pic. courtesy-http://anudinam.org/

The cave wall on the opposite side shows a beautiful sculpture of Vamana Murthy getting dhanam from King Mahabali and MahaVishnu as Trivirama measuring the earth and sky. Sukracharya is punished by Garuda for disturbing the dhanam as Jambavan looks on.

Outside the cave temple, is a shrine for Garudawar.

A flight of steps descend to the three-sided prakaram below. There are many shrines here.

More on this temple in my next post.

 

 

 

 

AYODHYAPATTINAM – And The Coronation Of Sri Rama

SRI KODHANDA RAMA SWAMY TEMPLE,

AYODHYAPATTINAM

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Any place that is steeped in history I find immensely attractive.The older it is the better! There is just such a place near Salem- a place visited by Sri Rama, which was once the Ashram of a famous Rishi, a place that is a  treasure-trove  of some of the most exquisite  granite sculptures – all this so close to home..surely nothing could be better!

This special place is Ayodhyapattinam near Salem. Pattinam means city in Tamil. So the name Ayodhyapattinam translates as The City of Ayodhya.

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Ayodhya is an ancient city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in North India.It was the capital of the kingdom of Kosala ruled by the famous  Ishvaku Kings of the Surya Dynasty of whom Lord Rama was the most celebrated king.It was here that Shri Rama was born as the eldest son of King Dasaratha.  Sage Valmiki’s Sanskrit epic Ramayana begins in Ayodhya with the birth of Rama and ends with His Coronation in this ancient city. The Brahmanda Purana and the Bhagavatha Purana extoll it as the most important among the six holy cities of the Hindus (Mokshapuri),a pilgrimage to which is capable of giving Moksha or Nirvana.

Why is a village in Tamil Nadu named after Ayodhya, the ancient capital of the Kosala Desam ?Because, here we see the Coronation scene of Shri Rama and Sita Devi attended by Sugreeva, Baratha, Lakshmana, Vibhishana and Hanuman, all within a single sanctum.

HISTORY

(STHALA PURANA)

The temple of Kothanda Rama Swamy was originally the Ashram of Sage Bharathwaja, a famous Rishi. After Ravana was vanquished in Sri Lanka and Sita was rescued, Shri Rama and Sita returned to Ayodhya in the Pushpaka Vimana, a celestial aircraft. They were accompanied by Lakshmana, Hanuman, Sugreeva, Vibhishana among others.En route, at the request of Rishi Bharathwaja, Sri Rama stayed at his Ashram for a day with his entourage. The exalted Rishi and Vibhishana expressed their desire to see the Coronation scene of Sri Rama. To their delight Rama obliged them by enacting the Coronation that was to take place in Ayodhya.

Sage Bharathwaja built a temple for Sri Rama at the place where Rama stayed. For thousands of years, it remained in the forests near Salem. After the 16th century the first human settlement was formed around the temple during the Nayak rule in Madurai.

Villagers are said to have approached the local chieftain Masi Nayak, who on instructions from King Tirumalai Nayak, built the temple.

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In this temple we find the rare form of Sri Rama and Sita seated on a throne.It is known as Pattabhisheka Kolam. Pattabhishekam is the sacred anointing, ritual bath and crowning of the King and is the Indian equivalent of a Coronation. Sri Rama’s right hand is in Chin Mudra and he sits with his left foot placed on his right thigh in kingly fashion. Sita is seated beside him. Sugreeva, Vibhishana, Baratha, and Hanuman watch with folded hands.

Sri Rama’s Pattabhishekam is important because,

  • It marked the end of the atrocities of the Demons or Rakshasas and of Ravana, the Demon king in particular.
  • It marked the triumph of Good over evil.
  • It heralded the beginning of a glorious era in history known as the Rama Rajyam which became the ultimate ideal in good governance.

Worshipping the Pattabhisheka Kolam of Sri Rama is thought to be the penultimate solution for all problems in life.

This form of Lord Rama is not seen in many places.That is the reason why this temple in Ayodhyapattinam is important.

TREATISE IN STONE – THE MAHA MANDAPAM

The temple’s Maha Mandapam has 28 ornate pillars with exquisite life- like sculptures.It is truly amazing that each pillar is sculpted out of a single slab of granite.

My Photos do not do justice to this wonderful gallery of temple pillar art.

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Warrior on horseback slaying a lion with a lance which in turn is trying to kill a man
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The other side of the same pillar. On this side the warrior is seen killing the lion with a sword
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Amazing details..the horse’s teeth are cleary seen
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A warrior on a mythical animal known as Yali

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Musical Pillars- these are joined to central supports. Ayodhyapattinam, Tamil Nadu
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Delicate and beautiful stone lattice work. Ayodhyapattinam, Tamil Nadu
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Rishi Bharatwaja
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Ramanujar

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TRIVIKRAMA
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HANUMAN

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The name Barathwaja is written in Tamil above these figures near the ceiling
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Krishna Leela  – Herbal dyes have been used for paintings on the ceiling
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Painting of Gajendre Moksha using Herbal paints
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A map of India placed near the entrance That shows the places visited by Sri Rama in his Yatra given by a team from Ayodya to confirm that Sri Rama visited here.

It is believed that worship at this temple in Ayodhyapattinam is equal to visiting Ayodhya in North India.

Where it is located

Ayodhyapattinam is 11 Kms. from Salem on the Salem – Harur road

Timings

6 A.M. to 12 P.M.

5 P.M. to 8 P.M.

TIRUVATTAR

SRI ADI KESAVA PERUMAL TEMPLE, TIRUVATTAR Adi Kesava Perumal Temple, Tiruvattar அருள்பெறுவார்  அடியார் தம்  அடியனேற்கு  ஆழியான்

அருள் தருவான்  அமைகின்றான்  அது நமது  விதிவகையே

இருள்தருமா  ஞாலத்துள்  இனிபிறவி  யான்  வேண்டேன்

மருளொளி  நீ  மடநெஞ்சே  வாட்டாற்றான்  அடி  வணங்கே.

வாட்டாற்றா   னடிவணங்கி  மாஞாலப்  பிறப் பறுப்பான்

கேட்டாயே  மடநெஞ்சே  கேசவனெம்  பெருமானை

பாட்டாய  பலபாடி  பழ வினைகள்  பற்றறுத்து

நாட்டாரோ  டியல் வொழிந்து  நாரணனை  நண்ணினமே.

The above pasurams are part of the 11 pasurams sung by Nammalvar in praise of Adi Kesava Perumal in Tiruvattar. a view of the backwaters in Kanyakumari district The drive from Kanyakumari to Tiruvattar is along green paddy fields, coconut groves, rubber plantations, streams, rivers, fishermen fishing in their catamarans in the backwaters. The beauty of Kanyakumari district takes your breath away. Tiruvattar is a village 46 km. from Kanyakumari.

Route

1.Kanyakumari—-Nagerkoil—-Thukalai—-Azhagiyamandapam—-Tiruvattar

2.Tiruvananthapuram—-Marthandam—-Tiruvattar

Alternately, Driving along NH 7 and then NH 47 on the Kanyakumari-Trivandrum highway take a detour and turn right on to the Colachel-Tiruvattar road at a place called Azaghiyamandapam. Tiruvattar is at a distance of 7 km. from here.

A view of the temple entrance
A view of the entrance to the temple

The Temple

The temple of Sri Adi Kesava Perumal in Tiruvattar is in a picturesque setting, rich with dense vegetation. The Paraliyaru flows around the temple on three sides which gives the place its name-Tiru vattaru. The temple is on an elevation. The main entrance faces west. We climb a flight of 18 steps to enter the temple.  Inside there are huge corridors (Prakarams). The pillars here are rich with sculptures. At the base of each pillar there are images of maidens carrying lamps. They are called Deepa lakshmi and there are 224 in all. No two are the same!

The huge Corridors
The huge corridors
Prayer to Adi Kesava Perumal
Prayer to Adi Kesava Perumal
Board showing list of Malayala Naatu tirupathis
Board showing list of Malayala Naatu tirupathis

Inside the main shrine, the platform in front of Garba Graha and where the deity rests are both carved out of a single stone and hence called as Othakkal Mantapam. This Mantapam is rich in sculptures and mural paintings.

Thiruvattaru Adi Kesava Perumal

  Ghee and oil lamps light up the inner Garba Graha. We are taken unawares in that first glimpse of the Lord. For a moment we are spell bound- the reclining image of the Lord is huge! We worship the Lord through three openings, the lord’s feet , then the lord’s right hand which is in Chin mudra and lastly His face, so serene and beautiful. Through the central opening we also see the Thayars, Sri Devi and Bhoo Devi seated near the Lord, and the Utsava murthy. An image of Maharishi Hathaneya is seen near the head of the Lord. There is a Shiva lingam near the feet (paadam) of the Lord.

On the wall behind there are deities carved within circles. The priest explains that they are the deities of the Panchayuda (five weapons) of Lord Vishnu.There is no Brahma or lotus on the nabi of Perumal. It is believed that those who worship Adi Kesava Perumal will have no future births.

On leaving the main Shrine we worship next at a small temple to Tiruvampadi Sri Krishna built in the 12th century.

Antiquity

There are references to Tiruvattaru in ancient Sangam literature called Puranaanooru that dates back to more than 2000 years. In it a Sangam poet named Maangudi Kizhar (மாங்குடி  கிழார்) writes about a kuru nila mannan (king)named Vattaatru Ezhiniyaadhan (வட்டாற்று  எழினியாதன்).

There are stone inscriptions from the reign of Kulothunga Chola I.

Nammalvar has sung paasurams in praise of the Lord.

Legend

The Sthalapuranam of this temple is written in Malayalam and Sanskrit.

Once when Brahma conducted a yagna, he mispronounced some mantras, as a result of which, a demon arose from the yagna flames. His name was Kesan. Since he was evil, Adi Kesava Perumal confined him within the massive coils of Adi Seshan and the Lord lay down on top to prevent his escape.Kesan was a Shivabhaktan.So a Sivalingam was placed near the feet of Adi Kesava Perumal in order to control him.Still, Kesan tried to come out of the coils, so the Lord placed a Rudraksha in each of the demon’s 12 hands. They turned into 12 temples to Lord Shiva. These are the 12 Shiva temples around Tiruvattaru that are worshipped during the famous Shivalaya Ottam.

Adi Kesava Permal Temple
A view of the temple from the Narasimhar temple
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Another view of the temple

 What is unique about this temple

  • This is one of the oldest Vaishnava temples in South India.
  • Vaishnava Saint Nammalvar  has sung 11 Pasurams about Adi Kesava Perumal- (Pasuram 3722-3732).
  • This is the 76th Divyadesam of the 108 tirupathis and 2nd among the Malai naatu shrines.
  • The temple is a jewel in temple Architecture.
  • The moola vigraha is a massive 22 feet in length.It is made up of 16008 salagramas using a method known as Kadu Sarkara Yogam that is unique to Kerala. This is an extremely complicated process and very different from sculpting. Therefore there is no abhishekam for the moolavar.

Adi Kesava Perumal is considered to be the ‘Annan’ (elder brother) of Anantapadmanabhaswamy. Devotees on a pilgrimage are advised to worship Adi Kesavava Perumal before worshipping Padmanabhaswamy.

The Othakal Mandapam measuring 18 x 18 x 1 feet is an architectural marvel.

Additional Facts

Importance of the temple to the Tiruvithangode (Travancore) kingdom

Present day Kanyakumari District was part of the Tiruvithangode Travancore kingdom. Up to the reign of King Marthanda Varma, the kings of Travancore ruled from Padmanabhapuram (15 km.from Tiruvattar). King Marthanda Varma was a staunch devotee of Adi Kesava Perumal and worshipped at the temple before all the  major war campaigns undertaken by him. It was Dharma Raja, the nephew and successor of Marthanda Varma who shifted the capital to Tiruvananthapuram. In view of the above facts we are better able to understand the intriguing association of Padmanabhaamy temple with the temple of Adi Kesava Perumal.

Tiruvananthapuram temple is an exact replica of Tiruvattar temple. The images of Adi Kesava Perumal and Padmanabhaswamy are installed in such a way that they face each other. Adi Kesava Perumal faces west while Padmanabhaswamy faces east

. Poojas are according to the procedures followed in Kerala temples.

Paal Payasam, Aval and Appam are delicious prasadams at this temple.

SHIVALAYA OTTAM

There are 12 Shiva temples around Tiruvattar. They are the temples at Munchirai, Thikkurichi, Thirparappu, Tirunandikkarai, Ponmanai, Pannippakam, Kalkulam, Melangodu, Tiruvidaikodu, Tiruvithankodu, Tirupanrikkodu, and Nattalam.On Mahasivarathri day starting from Munchirai, devotees from Kerala and Tamil-nadu run to all the above temples, chanting ‘Gopala, Govinda’ and reach Nattalam by nightfall. The ritual ends in worship at the Adi Kesava Perumal temple in Tiruvattar. The marathon of pilgrims on Mahasivarathri uttering the names of Lord Vishnu substantiates the truth that Siva and Vishnu are but two manifestations of the one Supreme Being.

There is a small temple for Lord Lakshminarasimha  near the river and opposite to the Adi Kesava Perumal temple. Inside this temple there are  Panchaloga images of Narasimha swamy, Lord Subramanya and Sri Annapoorani kept together on the same peetam. Lord Narasima temple near the river

Narasihar temple Tiruvattaru
Narasihar temple Tiruvattaru
Lord Narasimha temple near the river
Lord Narasimha temple -inside view

TEMPLE TIMINGS

Morning: 5a.m. to 12p.m.

Evening: 5p.m. to 8 p.m.

Note:  As renovation work is under way in the Adi Kesava Perumal temple, the temple closes earlier in the mornings on weekdays. On Sundays there are lots of visitors to the temple and the renovation workers are on holiday. So the temple is open until 12 p.m.